Koch-powered lawmakers

Many Washington State legislators were elected courtesy of the Koch Brothers. In particular, Andy Hill and Steve Litzow squeaked by in 2010 via attack ads funded by the Koch brothers’ Americans for Prosperity.

The State Republican Party was later fined for violating election reporting requirements in that election.See
State Republicans fined for violating reporting requirements in 2010 elections.

Democracy for Sale, owned by Koch brothers

Obama saved the economy — and the GOP

Obama gave a priceless gift to the GOP: immunity from prosecution for war crimes, torture,  disastrous wars, politically motivated prosecutions by the Justice Department, widespread corruption, and other criminality.

In 2008, it appeared that the GOP was destined for many years of repudiation. They’d proven themselves corrupt, incompetent, and imperialistic.

But Obama nursed the GOP back to life by refusing to prosecute criminality, thereby hiding the wrongdoing from the American people.   Obama tried to be bipartisan. He compromised early and often. The GOP almost never compromised and often voted unanimously against the Democrats’ bills.

Obama had a chance to reorient America to a new paradigm of Democratic progressivism. Instead, he hid Bush-era criminality from the populace; surrounded himself with Bush holdovers and Wall Street cronies;  prosecuted the whistle blowers; expanded the power of the military, and governed as a centrist.  Obama didn’t fight.  As a result, in 2010 and 2014 the GOP roared back to life.   Americans were confused about who was to blame for the mess we’re in.

Indeed, Obama is a Wall Street Dem and a great friend of the Pentagon, the CIA, and the NSA.

In 2008 we needed an FDR or at least an LBJ.  Instead we got a centrist Dem who said of himself, “My policies are so mainstream that if I had set the same policies … back in the 1980s, I would be considered a moderate Republican.”

No wonder people didn’t turn out to vote in 2014.

From 2009 onwards I tried to submit resolutions to local Democratic organizations critical of Obama’s sellouts.  As you can imagine, those resolutions didn’t go over very well. “Are you crazy? Are you trying to help the GOP?”

There are those who would say that impeachment of Bush, Cheney and others would have been too divisive and would have led to a backlash against Democrats similar to what happened in 1999 when Republicans impeached Bill Clinton. The analogy doesn’t hold. Clinton was impeached for (lying about) sex. Bush and Cheney could have been impeached for torture, deception about the grounds for invading Iraq, and other crimes. See Kucinich Introduces 35 Articles of Impeachment.

In 2007,   members of the Washington State legislature were working on bills calling for the impeachment of President Bush.  Senator Patty Murray ordered them to stop.  See D.C. Dems want to stop legislative impeachment talk.

During the confirmation hearings for Clarence Thomas, there were women aside from Anita Hill who were willing to testify that Thomas had sexually harassed them.  Then Senator Joe Biden did not allow the women to testify. See The Injustice Of Clarence Thomas.

Well, the Democratic leadership got the shellacking they deserved.  They don’t fight the good fight.  Unfortunately, millions of grassroots Dems are truly progressive but repeatedly get sold out by the leadership.

It all makes me sick.

Hey, conservatives! YOU are responsible for torture, widespread death, and trillions of wasted dollars

As Americans, we have a fundamental right to vote and to support candidates, parties, and positions of our choosing.

But voting and political advocacy aren’t just a right. They’re also a weighty responsibility.   Sometimes we support candidates or positions that result in great harm.

For example, during the presidency of George W. Bush, our nation systematically tortured prisoners. This has been known for years, but only recently did the US Senate release a report enumerating the heinous acts performed under the direction of the highest officials in the US government.

Not only did our nation torture, it also initiated a fraudulent war against a nation, Iraq, that was unrelated to the attacks of 9/11. Moreover, that war was planned long before those attacks.  The war resulted in the loss of over 4000 US lives and of hundreds of thousands of Iraqi lives. Some reputable estimates are that over a million people died.  The war wasted trillions of dollars and incited anti-American hatred and jihadism.

People who voted for Bush & Cheney bear responsibility for those outcomes. (Not all conservative voted for Bush & Cheney, but most conservatives did, I’m sure.)  People who supported Bush & Cheney in 2004 are especially culpable, because by then the facts had become available about the fraudulence and recklessness of the war.

Do you conservatives apologize for your support of Bush & Cheney? Do you acknowledge the injustice of their acts?

In 2008 I voted for Barack Obama, thinking he’d be a transformative president who would turn a page on the corruption, class warfare, and war-mongering of his predecessors.  Things didn’t turn out that way. Obama  protected the torturers, the war criminals, and the crooks of the financial industry.  He prosecuted whistle blowers. He surrounded himself with Wall Street cronies.  He escalated the war in Afghanistan, instigated drone attacks in several nations, and meddled in the Ukraine and other countries.  He compromised early and often. He failed to lead.  The health care plan he chose as a centerpiece of his domestic policy was devised by the Heritage Foundation.  His passivism and centrism helped the Democrats to get a shellacking in 2010 and again in 2014.

Still, most of the responsibility for the shellacking is borne by Congressional Republicans who opposed every policy initiative Obama proposed, often with unanimity. Republican intransigence, and the opposition of conservative Democrats, resulted in the Affordable Care Act being as bad as it is.  Basically, Republicans forced a bad health care plan on the American people and then blamed the Democrats for problems with the plan.

But Obama can’t just blame the Republicans. He was a poor leader who chose many bad policies. And as Obama recently said of himself, “My policies are so mainstream that if I had set the same policies … back in the 1980s, I would be considered a moderate Republican.”

This was clear to me by 2010.  So I did not vote for Obama in 2012. And now I regret having supported Obama in 2008.

But the choices in 2008 were not good. Hillary Clinton and John McCain were (and continue to be) more hawkish and more friendly to Wall Street than Obama.   At most I could have made a protest vote, for a candidate with no chance of winning.   Besides, om 2008 I was deceived by Obama’s speeches and campaign propaganda.

So, I apologize to the American people and the world for voting for Obama in 2008, though I plead naiveté and ignorance.   Had I supported Obama in 2012 I would have been more culpable — as were those who supported Bush & Cheney in 2004.

Perhaps many of the conservatives who voted for Bush & Cheney in 2004 knew that he wasn’t so good but figured that he was the lesser of two evils. Indeed, one day in 2006 a Republican coworker came into the office and said, “Yeah, Bush and Cheney have done a terrible job. ” He shook his head and thought for a moment. “But I still wouldn’t vote for a Democrat, because they’d be even worse.”     I really don’t understand that attitude, given how horrible Bush & Cheney were.

We live in a sick society, and our political system is nearly dysfunctional.  People have become so disillusioned with the system that they don’t bother to vote. Turnout in 2014 was the lowest in 70 years.   The candidates our political system delivers for national office are almost uniformly horrible.

Our health care system is insanely expensive and is less effective than that of many industrialized nations.

Our campaign financing system invites corruption, thanks in part to the five Supreme Court justices who voted in the Citizens United ruling that money is a form of speech.

Scientists tell us that global climate change threatens the health of the planet. But many Republicans in Congress think climate change is a liberal myth.

Concentration of wealth and the national debt continue to rise (though the rate of the rise of the debt has slowed down during the Obama administration).   Many corporations avoid taxes by stashing money overseas.   The tax rate for unearned income is lower than for earned income. But Republicans in the next Congress plan more tax cuts for rich people. Is that fiscally and morally responsible?

Washington State has the most regressive tax system in the nation, and the state Supreme Court has held the legislature in contempt for not adequately funding education.  But voters continue to elect Republicans who work to maintain tax breaks and to oppose progressive taxation that would benefit the middle class and the poor.

 

Obama gave a priceless gift to the GOP: Why aren't Dems furious?

Obama gave a priceless gift to the GOP: immunity from prosecution and accountability for war crimes, torture, and other criminality. Still, many Democrats treat him as a hero.

In 2008, it appeared that the GOP was destined for many years of repudiation. They’d proven themselves corrupt, incompetent, and imperialistic.

Obama had a chance to reorient America to a new paradigm of Democratic progressivism. Instead, he hid Bush-era criminality from the populace; surrounded himself with Bush holdovers and Wall Street cronies;  prosecuted the whistle blowers; and governed as a centrist.  As a result, in 2010 and 2014 the GOP roared back to life.   Americans were confused about who was to blame for the mess we’re in.

There are those who would say that impeachment of Bush, Cheney and others would have been too divisive and would have led to a backlash against Democrats similar to what happened in 1999 when Republicans impeached Bill Clinton. The analogy doesn’t hold. Clinton was impeached for (lying about) sex. Bush and Cheney could have been impeached for torture, deception about the grounds for invading Iraq, and other crimes. See Kucinich Introduces 35 Articles of Impeachment.

Survival of the friendliest: how cooperation plays a positive role in evolution

The dominant story about biological evolution is a bloody tale of competition and survival of the fittest. There’s no purpose or morality in nature.  There’s no Creator imposing an Intelligent Design.  Rather, random mutations during cell division result in offspring with a diversity of traits. Those offspring with fitter traits tend to survive and breed.  Weaker offspring die out.  Over many generations, beneficial traits accumulate, leading to evolution and the eventual creation of new species.

Kinda brutal. Just what libertarians would love.

Super Cooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed offers a more nuanced story about evolution.  The book presents recent research in biology and mathematical game theory that challenges the primacy of competition as a force in biological and cultural evolution.  According to the new paradigm, cooperation plays a much more significant role in the success of species in than in the dominant approach.

Nowak writes that natural selection is not a sufficient foundation for evolution.

I propose that “natural cooperation” be included as a fundamental principle to bolster those laid down by Darwin. Cooperation can draw living matter upward to higher levels of organization. It generates the possibility for greater diversity by new specializations, new niches, and new divisions of labor. Cooperation makes evolution constructive and open-ended.

An important point is that all this lofty talk is backed up by peer-reviewed science. Nowak published, in major journals, articles about mathematical game theory which explain under what conditions cooperation can evolve in communities of competing organisms.

This topic is of particular interest because of its implications for politics.    The political ideology of the conservative movement in America is based on opposition to government and cooperation, in favor of low taxes, deregulation, and laissez-faire capitalism.   Conservatives can point to evolution as a justification of their ideology, much as Herbert Spenser did in the 19th century. But if cooperation plays a much larger role in evolution than previously thought, then the biological argument becomes less persuasive.

Indeed, government-run health care in most countries provides higher quality care at a fraction of the cost of America’s inefficient market-based system.   Competition is useful in some areas, especially in high tech where innovation is important. But in other areas of an economy, including health care delivery, centralized control and planning make more sense, as they eliminate unproductive rent-seeking.

It’s a battle between selfishness and cooperation, between freedom (including freedom to cheat) and justice.

Super Cooperators is written in a lively style by Harvard professor of Biology and Mathematics, Martin A. Nowak, with science writer Roger Highfield as co-author. The book has few equations or diagrams but the exposition and prose are clear enough so that the educated reader, especially someone with a little background in biology or computer science, can imagine how to reproduce many of the experiments.

Since  the 19th century biologists (including Darwin) pointed to the success of the social insects (e.g., ants) as examples of how traits can evolve that favor the group over the individual.  Called “group selection” or “kin selection” or “multilevel selection” or “inclusive fitness”, these mechanisms represent a kind of higher level evolution, wherein groups that are better able to cooperate out-compete groups comprised by more selfish individuals.    But until recently, most biologists have thought that mechanisms such as group selection have limited effect.   On the other hand, it is obvious that evolution has resulted in highly cooperative species, such as ants and homo sapiens.    Nowak and others researchers have laid mathematical and evidential foundations that explain the origin of cooperation and that support a broader role for cooperation in evolution than previously thought.

Much of the book describes computer simulations of competition in which virtual individuals compete in a virtual ecology (economy).   Researchers have experimented with different strategies for competition.  Depending on the how the economy is set up, the best strategy may involve either selfish competition or cooperation.  Sacrificing one’s own short-term gain can lead to an outcome in which everybody benefits (as in the tragedy of the commons).  Research shows under which conditions one strategy (e.g., “cooperate if the other person cooperated in the past”) can make inroads against individuals using a different strategy (e.g., “always be selfish”).    The research paradigm appears under the name of “Prisoner’s Dilemma”.

In the new framework for evolution, not all is rosy. “There is a dark side to cooperation that comes in the form of parasites, cheats, defectors, and other lowlifes.”  In an ecology of cooperating individuals, a “defector” can exploit the kindness of strangers and disrupt the cooperative strategy.   Cancer cells in the body are an example of non-cooperators.  In a political economy, defectors can take the form of welfare queens who refuse to work. Alternatively, the defector can take the form of wealthy individuals who benefit from government contracts and protections but offload costs (e.g., pollution) to others, don’t pay their taxes, and subvert government laws and regulations to be in their own favor.

Nowak identifies five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: (1) direct reciprocity; (2) indirect reciprocity — reputation, via language; (3) spatial selection — organizing into small, local groups helps to protect against defectors and parasites and to increase mutual trust;  (4) multilevel selection — selection at the group level — e.g., tribes that cooperate better out-compete tribes consisting of selfish individuals; and (5) kin selection — people naturally cooperate with people related by blood. For each of the five mechanisms, Nowak presents simple mathematical formulas that describe under what conditions cooperation can out-compete selfishness. For example, if the product of the benefits deriving from cooperation times the probability that you’ll encounter the same person again exceeds the short-term cost of cooperation, then it pays to cooperate. This and other cases imply that cooperation works better if people divide into small groups and cooperate in such groups. The theory explains the prevalence of groups such as families, villages, gangs, cults, corporations, policies, and factions in human societies. It also implies that humans should organize politically at different levels of granularity.

In the final chapters Nowak makes a (somewhat sentimental and melodramatic) call for greater worldwide cooperation, especially on the issue of climate change. He says:

The story of humanity is one that rests on the never-ending creative tension between the dark pursuit of selfish short-term interests and the shining example of striving towards collective long-term goals. …. I have argued that evolution “needs” cooperation if she is to construct new levels of organization, driving genes to collaborate in chromosomes, chromosomes to collaborate in genomes, genomes to collaborate in cells, cells to collaborate in more complex cells, complex cells to collaborate in bodies, and bodies to collaborate in societies.

One can view this area of research as giving a naturalistic explanation for morality.

The research gives intellectual succor for progressive-minded people who want to push back against the regressive forces in American politics who wish to dismantle the New Deal and return the country to the small government, small-minded days of the Articles of Confederation.

Let's save the Democratic Party — by holding corporate Dems accountable

There is a never-ending debate among progressive Democrats about whether to break away from the Democratic Party.  Recently, that debate has heated up — for example, on discussion forums of progressive Dems in Washington State.

The victory of Socialist candidate Kshama Sawant over long-time Democratic stalwart Richard Conlin should have been a wake-up call to Washington State Democrats.    Now State House chair Frank Chopp is being challenged by a young Socialist woman, Jess Spear, who helped spearhead the successful campaign for a $15 minimum wage in Seattle. A loss by Chopp in November, or poor performance in the primary, would be disastrous for the Democratic Party.

If you listen to Democratic Party defenders, they’d say that the Republicans are to blame for the failure of the Dems to enact many progressive (and centrist) policies. There is much truth to this spin, both in Washington State and in D.C.   Here in Washington, the Senate Majority Coalition thwarted several progressive initiatives, on women’s health, transportation, the environment, and revenue.    In US Congress, Republicans have opposed virtually every progressive or even moderate policy initiative of the Democrats.

But you can’t blame just the Republicans.

In Seattle why didn’t the Dems take the lead in pushing for a $15 minimum wage?

Why did the Dems go along with the granting of $9 billion in tax breaks to Boeing. You can’t just blame Boeing for that. Governor Inslee spearheaded the move, despite the already cash-starved state treasury and despite the McCleary decision by the State Supreme Court mandating more school funding.

Why aren’t the Dems doing something to fix our upside-down state tax system, the most regressive in the nation?   They should be holding hearings and writing articles for newspapers. It should be a central part of their messaging.  They’re largely silent on the issue.  Neither Governor Gregoire nor, especially, Governor Inslee has taken any lead in calling for progressive taxation.

In the state legislature, it’s not just turncoats Rodney Tom and Tim Sheldon who have betrayed Democratic values.  Rep. Ross Hunter led the effort to grant tax breaks to his former company, Microsoft.  See Ross Hunter Wants to Give Microsoft $100 Million Tax Break, Washington Still Poor and The Third Anniversary of Washington States’ Big Tax Gift to Microsoft and Microsoft Tax Scam Costs our State $1 Billion per year!.

Nationally, if Dems are sincere about their desire to help the middle class, why were they silent when the leader of the Democratic Party surrounded himself with Wall Street cronies, filled regulatory agencies with corporate hacks, prosecuted whistle blowers, crushed Occupy, expanded the NSA, enacted a health care plan designed by the Heritage Institute, etc., etc., etc?

A decade earlier, President Clinton repealed Glass-Steagall and passed NAFTA.

Indeed, GOP front-runner Rand Paul is running to the left of Democratic front-runner Hilary Clinton on two issues: support for Wall Street and militarism.  See Shockingly, Rand Paul Could be the GOP Nominee and Trouble for the Dems and Hillary’s Candid Motto for Democratic Party: “Represent Banks”.

Lots of young people, especially in the cities, think the Democrats are little better than the Republicans.  Obama’s defense of the security state and his friendliness to Wall Street  have convinced many young people that libertarianism will help them.

In 2008, the country was fed up with the corruption and mismanagement of the GOP and was ready for real change. That’s not at all what Obama delivered. Anyone in the know realizes that Obama ruled as a moderate, not as a liberal and certainly not as a progressive. As Obama said of himself, “My policies are so mainstream that if I had set the same policies … back in the 1980s, I would be considered a moderate Republican.”

History will show the extent to which Obama betrayed the Democratic Party.

Many Dems would privately agree that Obama has been a disappointment, or even a disaster. But, most Dems would say that we need to keep this inconvenient truth secret, lest the Dems lose big in the midterm elections and in 2016.  We must hold our tongues, swallow our pride, and suppress our rage.

For what?  So Hilary can be president? She’s even more corporate and hawkish than Obama.   True, she’d be better than any likely GOP nominee, including Rand Paul.   But need we set the bar so low?

Now, I think the Republicans are, in fact, much worse the Democrats. And libertarianism — or its close cousin, anarchism — would be a giveaway of control to the corporations and a reversal of many decades of progressive legislation and programs.  There are many good Dems, and the party platform, especially in Washington State, is a progressive document.

But unless the party holds accountable the corporate, militaristic Dems among its ranks, and unless it is more welcoming to leftists, it will have trouble convincing the American people that it deserves their support.  Millions of people will flee the party, towards socialism or libertarianism, or people will skip voting.

Save the Democratic Party. Kick out the corporate Dems. Speak the truth about our unfair economy — and act on it.

The Dems can do better than this

Who defends the middle class and our civil rights? The Dems or the Republicans?

Last week Dave Brat beat Eric Cantor partly by accusing Cantor of supporting crony capitalism. Undeniably, Obama supported crony capitalism: he surrounded himself with Wall Street cronies.

Yesterday the House voted to rein in Obama’s NSA spying; see House votes to rein in NSA ‘back door’ surveillance powers

The Dems can do better than Obama. And they can do better than Hillary, who is even more militaristic and corporate-friendly than Obama.

Visualized grouping of US Congress members by similarities in their voting records

The following images show US Senators and Representatives arranged according to the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014.

What’s most notable is how different the Dems are from the Republicans.

Another feature apparent from the images is that in the Senate, Democrats vote more as a bloc than the Republicans. In fact, a calculation from the data shows that in the Senate, for Republicans the average distance between pairs of senators is 114.9 votes; for Dems the average distance is 38.8 votes.

In the House, there is less difference between the Republicans and the Dems, and, in fact, in the House the Republicans vote more as a bloc than do the Dems. The average distance between House Republicans is 144.8 votes; for Dems in the House, the average distance is 184.7 votes.

The averages shown in the above two paragraphs quantify numerically what’s apparent visually in the images.

The data on which this analysis is based come from https://www.govtrack.us/.   The analysis and graphics are by me. A handful of lawmakers with few votes are omitted.

Please realize that the two dimensional images below are projections from a high-dimensional space of data, and so there is loss of information. The images represent approximate summaries.  Also realize that the x and y directions in these images have no particular meaning: the images show legislators placed in such a way as to optimize their relative distances, and this is accomplished by a stochastic relaxation algorithm (a form of multidimensional scaling).

When I covert the distance matrix into a weighted graph and visualize it with the Gephi graph visualization and analysis tool, the graphs look similar.

Note: in 2011 I made similar visualizations in 3D for Washington State Senators’ votes (here) and for US Senators (here) and for US representatives (here).


Section 1: US Senators clustered by the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014

Click on the image to see detail.
US Senators clustered by the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014

Notice that the Democrats are together on the upper-right, and the Republicans are spread out on the bottom-left.


Section 2: US Representatives clustered by the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014

Click on the image to see detail.

US Representatives clustered by the similarity of their voting records in 2013 and 2014


Section 3: Each Senator shown with the other Senator most similar in voting

Alexander (R-TN) (R-TN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Corker (R-TN))
Ayotte (R-NH) (R-NH, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Heller (R-NV))
Baldwin (D-WI) (D-WI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Barrasso (R-WY) (R-WY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Enzi (R-WY))
Begich (D-AK) (D-AK, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hagan (D-NC))
Bennet (D-CO) (D-CO, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
Blumenthal (D-CT) (D-CT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
Blunt (R-MO) (R-MO, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hoeven (R-ND))
Boozman (R-AR) (R-AR, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
Boxer (D-CA) (D-CA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
Brown (D-OH) (D-OH, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
Burr (R-NC) (R-NC, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Thune (R-SD))
Cantwell (D-WA) (D-WA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Cardin (D-MD) (D-MD, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
Carper (D-DE) (D-DE, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Durbin (D-IL))
Casey (D-PA) (D-PA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Chambliss (R-GA) (R-GA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Isakson (R-GA))
Coats (R-IN) (R-IN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Thune (R-SD))
Coburn (R-OK) (R-OK, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
Cochran (R-MS) (R-MS, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Wicker (R-MS))
Collins (R-ME) (R-ME, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Murkowski (R-AK))
Coons (D-DE) (D-DE, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Corker (R-TN) (R-TN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Alexander (R-TN))
Cornyn (R-TX) (R-TX, 482 votes, closest neighbor = McConnell (R-KY))
Crapo (R-ID) (R-ID, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Risch (R-ID))
Cruz (R-TX) (R-TX, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (R-SC))
Donnelly (D-IN) (D-IN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hagan (D-NC))
Durbin (D-IL) (D-IL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Enzi (R-WY) (R-WY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
Feinstein (D-CA) (D-CA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
Fischer (R-NE) (R-NE, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Grassley (R-IA))
Flake (R-AZ) (R-AZ, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Corker (R-TN))
Franken (D-MN) (D-MN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Gillibrand (D-NY) (D-NY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Graham (R-SC) (R-SC, 482 votes, closest neighbor = McCain (R-AZ))
Grassley (R-IA) (R-IA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
Hagan (D-NC) (D-NC, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Donnelly (D-IN))
Harkin (D-IA) (D-IA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Feinstein (D-CA))
Hatch (R-UT) (R-UT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Portman (R-OH))
Heinrich (D-NM) (D-NM, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
Heitkamp (D-ND) (D-ND, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Donnelly (D-IN))
Heller (R-NV) (R-NV, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Grassley (R-IA))
Hirono (D-HI) (D-HI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Leahy (D-VT))
Hoeven (R-ND) (R-ND, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
Inhofe (R-OK) (R-OK, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
Isakson (R-GA) (R-GA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Chambliss (R-GA))
Johanns (R-NE) (R-NE, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
Johnson (D-SD) (D-SD, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Durbin (D-IL))
Johnson (R-WI) (R-WI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Grassley (R-IA))
Kaine (D-VA) (D-VA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Carper (D-DE))
King (I-ME) (I-ME, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Kirk (R-IL) (R-IL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Ayotte (R-NH))
Klobuchar (D-MN) (D-MN, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Franken (D-MN))
Landrieu (D-LA) (D-LA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Coons (D-DE))
Leahy (D-VT) (D-VT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
Lee (R-UT) (R-UT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Enzi (R-WY))
Levin (D-MI) (D-MI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Manchin (D-WV) (D-WV, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Donnelly (D-IN))
McCain (R-AZ) (R-AZ, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Flake (R-AZ))
McCaskill (D-MO) (D-MO, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Kaine (D-VA))
McConnell (R-KY) (R-KY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
Menendez (D-NJ) (D-NJ, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Merkley (D-OR) (D-OR, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Wyden (D-OR))
Mikulski (D-MD) (D-MD, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
Moran (R-KS) (R-KS, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Roberts (R-KS))
Murkowski (R-AK) (R-AK, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Collins (R-ME))
Murphy (D-CT) (D-CT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Blumenthal (D-CT))
Murray (D-WA) (D-WA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
Nelson (D-FL) (D-FL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Paul (R-KY) (R-KY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (R-SC))
Portman (R-OH) (R-OH, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Thune (R-SD))
Pryor (D-AR) (D-AR, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Donnelly (D-IN))
Reed (D-RI) (D-RI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Whitehouse (D-RI))
Reid (D-NV) (D-NV, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
Risch (R-ID) (R-ID, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Crapo (R-ID))
Roberts (R-KS) (R-KS, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Risch (R-ID))
Rockefeller (D-WV) (D-WV, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Rubio (R-FL) (R-FL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (R-SC))
Sanders (I-VT) (I-VT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hirono (D-HI))
Schatz (D-HI) (D-HI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
Schumer (D-NY) (D-NY, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cantwell (D-WA))
Scott (R-SC) (R-SC, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Barrasso (R-WY))
Sessions (R-AL) (R-AL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Shelby (R-AL))
Shaheen (D-NH) (D-NH, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Wyden (D-OR))
Shelby (R-AL) (R-AL, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Sessions (R-AL))
Stabenow (D-MI) (D-MI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
Tester (D-MT) (D-MT, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Heinrich (D-NM))
Thune (R-SD) (R-SD, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Fischer (R-NE))
Toomey (R-PA) (R-PA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Grassley (R-IA))
Udall (D-CO) (D-CO, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Cardin (D-MD))
Udall (D-NM) (D-NM, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))
Vitter (R-LA) (R-LA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (R-SC))
Warner (D-VA) (D-VA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Kaine (D-VA))
Warren (D-MA) (D-MA, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Blumenthal (D-CT))
Whitehouse (D-RI) (D-RI, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Reed (D-RI))
Wicker (R-MS) (R-MS, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Hoeven (R-ND))
Wyden (D-OR) (D-OR, 482 votes, closest neighbor = Schumer (D-NY))


Section 4: Each House member shown along with the other House member most similar in voting

Aderholt (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roby)
Amash (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Massie)
Amodei (R-NV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Andrews (D-NJ, 703 votes, closest neighbor = Brady (PA))
Bachmann (R-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Bachus (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Barber (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Sinema)
Barletta (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Barr (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Black)
Barrow (D-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cuellar)
Barton (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pompeo)
Bass (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lee (CA))
Beatty (D-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Scott (VA))
Becerra (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
Benishek (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Bentivolio (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DeSantis)
Bera (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DelBene)
Bilirakis (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Bishop (GA) (D-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Castro (TX))
Bishop (NY) (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
Bishop (UT) (R-UT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Black (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
Blackburn (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
Blumenauer (D-OR, 945 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Bonamici (D-OR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Tonko)
Boustany (R-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Brady (PA) (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Crowley)
Brady (TX) (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
Braley (IA) (D-IA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Loebsack)
Bridenstine (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Brooks (AL) (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Brooks (IN) (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Broun (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Graves (GA))
Brown (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hanabusa)
Brownley (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DelBene)
Buchanan (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Mica)
Bucshon (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brooks (IN))
Burgess (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
Bustos (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Loebsack)
Butterfield (D-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Calvert (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Camp (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Miller (MI))
Campbell (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hunter)
Cantor (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
Capito (R-WV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McKinley)
Capps (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Capuano (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McGovern)
Carney (D-DE, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Carson (IN) (D-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Carter (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
Cartwright (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Cassidy (R-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Miller (MI))
Castor (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bishop (NY))
Castro (TX) (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Takano)
Chabot (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hensarling)
Chaffetz (R-UT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Chu (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Cicilline (D-RI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Clarke (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McDermott)
Clay (D-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Cleaver (D-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Clay)
Clyburn (D-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Beatty)
Coble (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Rokita)
Coffman (R-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Cohen (D-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
Cole (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Calvert)
Collins (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
Collins (NY) (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Conaway (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
Connolly (D-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Israel)
Conyers (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Cook (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Cooper (D-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Carney)
Costa (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cuellar)
Cotton (R-AR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foxx)
Courtney (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Larson (CT))
Cramer (R-ND, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
Crawford (R-AR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Crenshaw (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roby)
Crowley (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Sánchez, Linda T.)
Cuellar (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Gallego)
Culberson (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Cummings (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
Cárdenas (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Daines (R-MT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Miller (MI))
Davis (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Davis, Danny (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roybal-Allard)
Davis, Rodney (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
DeFazio (D-OR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
DeGette (D-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
DeLauro (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
DeSantis (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleming)
DelBene (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brownley (CA))
Delaney (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Denham (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Valadao)
Dent (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Meehan)
DesJarlais (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
Deutch (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Diaz-Balart (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cole)
Dingell (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
Doggett (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = O'Rourke)
Doyle (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Duckworth (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
Duffy (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Paulsen)
Duncan (SC) (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Duncan (TN) (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Petri)
Edwards (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
Ellison (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Ellmers (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Engel (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
Enyart (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brownley (CA))
Eshoo (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Esty (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Farenthold (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
Farr (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Fattah (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Fincher (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
Fitzpatrick (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = LoBiondo)
Fleischmann (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Black)
Fleming (R-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DeSantis)
Flores (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Holding)
Forbes (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wittman)
Fortenberry (R-NE, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Foster (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DelBene)
Foxx (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
Frankel (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Franks (AZ) (R-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schweikert)
Frelinghuysen (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Fudge (D-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Beatty)
Gabbard (D-HI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kuster)
Gallego (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
Garamendi (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cartwright)
Garcia (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
Gardner (R-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Jenkins)
Garrett (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Gerlach (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Dent)
Gibbs (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Luetkemeyer)
Gibson (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fitzpatrick)
Gingrey (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Scott, Austin)
Gohmert (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Duncan (SC))
Goodlatte (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Gosar (R-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Salmon)
Gowdy (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Granger (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
Graves (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
Graves (MO) (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
Grayson (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
Green, Al (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
Green, Gene (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Green, Al)
Griffin (AR) (R-AR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Griffith (VA) (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barr)
Grijalva (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lee (CA))
Grimm (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = King (NY))
Guthrie (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Gutierrez (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lee (CA))
Hahn (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Tonko)
Hall (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wilson (SC))
Hanabusa (D-HI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
Hanna (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Renacci)
Harper (R-MS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Harris (R-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Hartzler (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
Hastings (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Slaughter)
Hastings (WA) (R-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Heck (NV) (R-NV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Heck (WA) (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schiff)
Hensarling (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Herrera Beutler (R-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Graves (MO))
Higgins (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Himes (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Hinojosa (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
Holding (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
Holt (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pallone)
Honda (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schakowsky)
Horsford (D-NV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Holt)
Hoyer (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Israel)
Hudson (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Holding)
Huelskamp (R-KS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Duncan (SC))
Huffman (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Huizenga (MI) (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DeSantis)
Hultgren (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
Hunter (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schweikert)
Hurt (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Williams)
Israel (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
Issa (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Jackson Lee (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
Jeffries (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Crowley)
Jenkins (R-KS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Yoder)
Johnson (GA) (D-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
Johnson (OH) (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Renacci)
Johnson, E. B. (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
Johnson, Sam (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pompeo)
Jones (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Massie)
Jordan (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
Joyce (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Kaptur (D-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Keating (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kennedy)
Kelly (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Kelly (IL) (D-IL, 855 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Kennedy (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Kildee (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Kilmer (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bishop (NY))
Kind (D-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
King (IA) (R-IA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Neugebauer)
King (NY) (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Frelinghuysen)
Kingston (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Kinzinger (IL) (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Valadao)
Kirkpatrick (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bishop (NY))
Kline (R-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
Kuster (D-NH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brownley (CA))
LaMalfa (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
Labrador (R-ID, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Duncan (SC))
Lamborn (R-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Lance (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Paulsen)
Langevin (D-RI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lowey)
Lankford (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
Larsen (WA) (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Larson (CT) (D-CT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Latham (R-IA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Latta (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Lee (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McGovern)
Levin (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
Lewis (D-GA, 945 votes, closest neighbor = Cummings)
Lipinski (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foster)
LoBiondo (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fitzpatrick)
Loebsack (D-IA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DelBene)
Lofgren (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Long (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
Lowenthal (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Lowey (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Lucas (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Luetkemeyer (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Lujan Grisham (NM) (D-NM, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Luján, Ben Ray (NM))
Luján, Ben Ray (NM) (D-NM, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lujan Grisham (NM))
Lummis (R-WY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Lynch (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capuano)
Maffei (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
Maloney, Carolyn (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Maloney, Sean (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
Marchant (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Conaway)
Marino (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Massie (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Amash)
Matheson (D-UT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barrow)
Matsui (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
McCarthy (CA) (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kline)
McCarthy (NY) (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Rush)
McCaul (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
McClintock (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
McCollum (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
McDermott (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schakowsky)
McGovern (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capuano)
McHenry (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
McIntyre (D-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barrow)
McKeon (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roby)
McKinley (R-WV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
McMorris Rodgers (R-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
McNerney (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Meadows (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Meehan (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Dent)
Meeks (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wilson (FL))
Meng (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Davis (CA))
Messer (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
Mica (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Miller (MI))
Michaud (D-ME, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Miller (FL) (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kline)
Miller (MI) (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Mica)
Miller, Gary (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Lankford)
Miller, George (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thompson (CA))
Moore (D-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Moran (D-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Mullin (R-OK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Mulvaney (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Gowdy)
Murphy (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
Murphy (PA) (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Nadler (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
Napolitano (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Neal (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chu)
Negrete McLeod (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson, E. B.)
Neugebauer (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
Noem (R-SD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Luetkemeyer)
Nolan (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bishop (NY))
Nugent (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Holding)
Nunes (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))
Nunnelee (R-MS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wilson (SC))
O'Rourke (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Olson (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Owens (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Cuellar)
Palazzo (R-MS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hartzler)
Pallone (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McGovern)
Pascrell (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schiff)
Pastor (AZ) (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Israel)
Paulsen (R-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foxx)
Payne (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Pearce (R-NM, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Pelosi (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Davis (CA))
Perlmutter (D-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Carney)
Perry (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Peters (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
Peters (MI) (D-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
Peterson (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barrow)
Petri (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Sensenbrenner)
Pingree (ME) (D-ME, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Pittenger (R-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Pitts (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
Pocan (D-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
Poe (TX) (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (GA))
Polis (D-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Pompeo (R-KS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Posey (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Mica)
Price (GA) (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foxx)
Price (NC) (D-NC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
Quigley (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Radel (R-FL, 664 votes, closest neighbor = Paulsen)
Rahall (D-WV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kilmer)
Rangel (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Beatty)
Reed (R-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Reichert (R-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Turner)
Renacci (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Ribble (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
Rice (SC) (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
Richmond (D-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thompson (MS))
Rigell (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wittman)
Roby (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Roe (TN) (R-TN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barr)
Rogers (AL) (R-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Thornberry)
Rogers (KY) (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Rogers (MI) (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Rohrabacher (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McClintock)
Rokita (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Rooney (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Southerland)
Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
Roskam (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Ross (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Rothfus (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kelly)
Roybal-Allard (D-CA, 945 votes, closest neighbor = Hahn)
Royce (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Ryan (WI))
Ruiz (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
Runyan (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Frelinghuysen)
Ruppersberger (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schiff)
Rush (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schwartz)
Ryan (OH) (D-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
Ryan (WI) (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Salmon (R-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schweikert)
Sanchez, Loretta (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
Sanford (R-SC, 805 votes, closest neighbor = McClintock)
Sarbanes (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schakowsky)
Scalise (R-LA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Schakowsky (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McGovern)
Schiff (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Schneider (D-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bera)
Schock (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Schrader (D-OR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Carney)
Schwartz (D-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brown (FL))
Schweikert (R-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Scott (VA) (D-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Scott, Austin (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Scott, David (D-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Beatty)
Sensenbrenner (R-WI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Petri)
Serrano (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Sessions (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Sewell (AL) (D-AL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
Shea-Porter (D-NH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Sherman (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Shimkus (R-IL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Shuster (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Capito)
Simpson (R-ID, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Calvert)
Sinema (D-AZ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Barber)
Sires (D-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brady (PA))
Slaughter (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Hastings (FL))
Smith (MO) (R-MO, 755 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
Smith (NE) (R-NE, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Smith (NJ) (R-NJ, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Wolf)
Smith (TX) (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Williams)
Smith (WA) (D-WA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Southerland (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Latta)
Speier (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Stewart (R-UT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
Stivers (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Stockman (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = DeSantis)
Stutzman (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Swalwell (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
Sánchez, Linda T. (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Crowley)
Takano (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Terry (R-NE, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Thompson (CA) (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Eshoo)
Thompson (MS) (D-MS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Veasey)
Thompson (PA) (R-PA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Thornberry (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Tiberi (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Renacci)
Tierney (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Tonko)
Tipton (R-CO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Titus (D-NV, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Tonko (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Tsongas (D-MA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kennedy)
Turner (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Upton (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Walden)
Valadao (R-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Van Hollen (D-MD, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Vargas (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Takano)
Veasey (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson, E. B.)
Vela (D-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Gallego)
Velázquez (D-NY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Serrano)
Visclosky (D-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Israel)
Wagner (R-MO, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Luetkemeyer)
Walberg (R-MI, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Walden (R-OR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Upton)
Walorski (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Brooks (IN))
Walz (D-MN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Price (NC))
Wasserman Schultz (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kildee)
Waters (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Pocan)
Watt (D-NC, 641 votes, closest neighbor = Wilson (FL))
Waxman (D-CA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Schiff)
Weber (TX) (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleming)
Webster (FL) (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Welch (D-VT, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Wenstrup (R-OH, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Fleischmann)
Westmoreland (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Chabot)
Whitfield (R-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Williams (R-TX, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Wilson (FL) (D-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Wilson (SC) (R-SC, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Long)
Wittman (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Johnson (OH))
Wolf (R-VA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Womack)
Womack (R-AR, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Roby)
Woodall (R-GA, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Foxx)
Yarmuth (D-KY, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Bonamici)
Yoder (R-KS, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Jenkins)
Yoho (R-FL, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Neugebauer)
Young (AK) (R-AK, 952 votes, closest neighbor = Kinzinger (IL))
Young (IN) (R-IN, 952 votes, closest neighbor = McCarthy (CA))