Horrible quotes about rape by Republicans

“Some girls rape easy.” – Rep. Roger Rivard (R-Wi)

“Rape is kinda like the weather. If it’s inevitable, relax and enjoy it.” – Clayton Williams (R-former Texas gubernatorial candidate)

“From what I understand…If it’s a legitimate rape, the female body has ways to try to shut that whole thing down.” – Todd Akin (R-Mo)

“You know, back in my days, they used Bayer aspirin for contraception. The gals put it between their knees, and it wasn’t that costly.” – Foster Friess (R-mega-donor behind Rick Santorum Super PAC)

“If a woman has (the right to an abortion), why shouldn’t a man be free to use his superior strength to force himself on a woman? At least the rapist’s pursuit of sexual freedom doesn’t (in most cases) result in anyone’s death.” – Lawrence Lockman (R-Me)

“In the emergency room they have what’s called rape kits, where a woman can get cleaned out.” – Jodie Laubenberg (R-Tx)

“It is similar, from the father’s position.” – Tom Smith (R, failed candidate for a seat in PA, discussing how rape and premarital sex are the same thing)

“I would hope that when a woman goes into a physician, with a rape issue, that that physician will indeed ask her about perhaps her marriage, was this pregnancy caused by normal relations in a marriage, or was it truly caused by a rape.” – Chuck Winder (R-Id)

“What did they expect?” – Liz Trotta (FOX pundit and horrible person, referring to women who are raped in the military)

“Rape victims should make the best of a bad situation.” – Rick Santorum (R – Former Speaker of the House)

Not to mention “Grab’em by the pussy” President Trump.

IMF Says Higher Taxes for Wealthy Good Idea. And These Billionaires Agree.

“A more progressive tax code, says International Monetary Fund, would both significantly reduce inequality and help grow the economy”


Dangerous things

1967 – Jayne Mansfield is killed when her car runs under the rear end of a tractor trailer. Since then, all trailers have a DOT bar at the rear to keep cars from going under them.

1982 – Seven people die when Tylenol packaging was tampered with. Since then, it takes a PhD, channel locks, and a sharp object to get into a bottle of pills.

1995 A bombing using a certain kind of fertilizer, solution grade ammonium nitrate, killed 168 people, so the government imposed severe restrictions on the purchase of that fertilizer.

2001 – One person attempts to blow up a plane with a shoe bomb. Since then, all air travelers have to take off their shoes for scanning before being allowed to board.

Since 1968 – 1,516,863 people have died from guns on American soil. Gun violence kills an average of 168 people every two days! Now, the problem apparently can’t be solved except with thoughts and prayers. AND JU$T WHY DO YOU THINK THI$ I$???

(Thanks to Jack Hart for the above. Please copy, paste, and share.)

Report on the AAPI candidates forum with state senate candidates Dhingra, Englund, Kuderer and Darnelle

On Thursday October 5, the Asian American & Pacific Islander (AAPI) Eastside Candidate Forum was held at the North Bellevue Community Center. Sponsors included the Korean American Coalition – Washington, American Civil Liberties Union, MAPS-AMEN (Muslim Association of Puget Sound — American Muslim Empowerment Network), APACEvotes, Tasveer, Seattle JACL, Asian Counseling and Referral Service, Eastside Asian Pacific Islanders, India Association of Western Washington, National Women’s Political Caucus of Washington, and International Community Health Services.

Candidates and moderator for the Asian American & Pacific Islander (AAPI) Eastside Candidate Forum

The speakers were, from left to right are 48th LD state senate candidates Michelle Darnell (Libertarian) and Patty Kuderer (Democrat); Aneelah Afzali (the moderator, from MAPS-AMEN); and 45th LD state senate candidates Jinyoung Lee Englund (Republican) and Manka Dhingra (Democrat).  There was a large turnout of mostly Asian people.  Samosas and kofta were provided.

The format was:  the (excellent) moderator asked each of the candidates questions.  Each candidate had four minutes to respond.  There was no time at the end for questions from the audience, though the candidates stayed and responded individually.

For a transcript of several of the speeches see this Bellevue Reporter article about education funding and this Bellevue Reporter article about hate speech.

Manka Dhingra wants to fund education by reducing some of the many tax loopholes that favor corporations and that don’t benefit the middle class by producing jobs.    Dhingra said that state senate Republicans supported the creation of a registry of Muslim residents.  (“Republican state legislative leaders, however, have been cool to the idea on proposals aimed at protecting against deportations” — source. See also this.)    At one point Dhingra mentioned that the state senate majority leader (Mark Schoesler) once wore a “Make America Great Again” hat in the senate chambers. (Presumably, Dhingra was trying to associate state Republicans with the albatross of extremism of Trump and the D.C. Republicans).  In response, a south Asian (Indian?) audience member rose and shouted, “What’s wrong with that?”.   (What’s wrong with wanting America to be great again?   Or what’s wrong with supporting Trump?)  The moderator and several audience members worked to calm down the woman, who continued to mumble to the people around her.  Dhingra mostly ignored the woman’s interruption.  Asked what bill she would introduce first as a state senator, Dhingra said: a bill to close loopholes in gun laws that allows people convicted of harassment to continue to own guns.

Jingyoung Englund said there is extremism on both sides and repeatedly blamed one-party rule, in both Olympia and D.C., for our political problems.   (But Republicans have controlled the state senate in Olympia since 2012.)  She says that one reason to vote for her is that Republican politicians in D.C. would be more likely to listen to her pleas than to the pleas of a Democrat.  (She is basically admitting that the D.C. Republicans are extreme.)  She claimed Asian Americans would be the majority by some point in the 21st century.  Several of Englund’s answers were vague or  confused. She called for everyone to get together and have “conversations.” Asked what issue she would first address as state senator, Englund said: transportation. “The legislation that I would proactively pursue has to do with transportation. Because when I go door to door, the people in my district over and over the things I feel most about is I feel overburdened by taxes, I want to maintain quality education and public schools, and number three: traffic. Traffic is awful. Wherever you are in Washington State, it’s awful.” (Untrue! Traffic is not awful in rural areas.)   But she offered no solution. Instead she proposed lowering car tab fees — which wouldn’t help traffic at all! She said one Romanian family pays $1200 in car tabs. “I would work with both Democrats and Republicans to find a way to bring relief to the families who suffered this year and then, moving forward, make sure that they don’t have to keep paying such high fees.”   Here is a video of her remarks on transportation.

The moderator asked Englund about our regressive tax system.  Englund avoided the question and didn’t give a straight answer. After the forum, I asked the moderator why she didn’t press Englund about it (the moderator made a point of interrupting the speakers if they strayed from topic); she said she ran out of time, but she encouraged me to ask Englund in person. So I did. Englund again avoided the question and just said that the voters don’t want more taxes.  I said, it’s not a matter of more taxes, it’s a matter of fairer taxes. Still, Englund didn’t respond.

In her closing statement, Englund said that extremism is “deteriorating our democracy” and, overall, gave an impression of someone too immature to be a state senator.   Below is her closing speech, in which she speaks like a high schooler:

Patty Kuderer, who was appointed to the 48th LD state senate seat, emphasized education and the state’s responsibility to amply fund it, per the state Constitution and state Supreme Court rulings.  If we don’t educate the kids, they end up in the court system and we end up paying times as much to prosecute and imprison them.  Kuderer wants to eliminate the real estate tax break for (oil) companies that was hidden in the last-minute budget deal designed largely by the state senate.  Kuderer spoke of our regressive tax system and of the need for a capital gains tax, that would target only 1% of the population.  Asked to name the first bill she would submit as senator she said she’d propose a state infrastructure bank similar to, but more limited than, Sen. Bob Hasegawa’s proposal for a state bank.  Half the cost of infrastructure is debt servicing paid to Wall Street. The state pays $3 billion every year (or two) to Wall Street. But the state can finance projects itself and save a lot of money. North Dakota has a similar bank, and it survived the recession well.  Such a bank would complement, not replace, private banks.

Michelle Darnelle is opposed to the the monopoly on government by the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, which she said are corrupt. She claims to be sympathetic to the concerns of both many on the left (Occupy) and the right (Tea Party) who are fed up with the two main political parties. She called for “incentivizing” quality education via choice, charter schools, and vouchers. She suggested that a strong economy would reduce anti-immigrant views;  she gave the analogy that crowded, starved rats become cannibalistic.    Because of the Las Vegas massacre there will be calls for more government surveillance and meddling with Americans’ rights.    She claimed the ultimate cause for such massacre is the widespread use of anti-depressants, which have nasty side-effects.  Darnelle raised her voice in anger at several points.  Her first bill as senator would be a homeowner’s bill or rights, to protect homeowners from foreclosure when the next recession hits. She claimed that Attorney General Bob Ferguson did little or nothing to protect homeowners in that way.  (But see this and this.). When I asked her she would do about traffic suggestion, Darnelle suggested eliminating tolls on roads. (Wouldn’t that mostly just increase traffic?)    I believe Darnelle has little chance of winning against Kuderer.  No Republican candidate survived the top-two primary.  This is Darnelle’s fourth run, I believe she said.

How the Seattle Times could prosper

I’ve never subscribed to the Seattle Times. The reason is that, as a progressive, I disagree with many of the political endorsements by the editorial board.

Yet when I speak with conservatives they often say they dislike the Seattle Times because it’s too liberal! The Seattle Times gets hit from both sides of the political aisle.

Admittedly, the editorial board is more libertarian than conservative. That is, they’re generally liberal on social and foreign policy issues and conservative on tax and fiscal issues.

And it sure is sad and dangerous that journalism is struggling and that the news room and the public have to pay the price.

Yet I have a suggestion about how the Seattle Times and other news outlets can win back subscribers: Stop endorsing candidates and policies. The main purpose of a newspaper should be to present the news as objectively and fairly as humanly possible. The editorial page can still be used to present opposing viewpoints by outside commentators, but except in cases of obvious incompetence or political extremism, the board should avoid partisan politicking.

In Bellevue, the issues of the homeless shelter and safe injection sites are wedge issues promoted by scared Republicans

In Bellevue and other Eastside communities, there is highly partisan debate underway, online and at city meetings, about the proposed men’s shelter in Eastgate, and about King County’s plan to have safe injection sites for the most addicted opiate users.

The real reason for the fervency of the opposition on these issues is that Republicans need wedge issues to distract voters from Donald Trump and from the fact that the Republican-controlled state senate just raised King County homeowners’ real estate taxes by up to $800 a year.

Republicans have lost control of the eastside in the state legislature: all legislators in the 41st and 48th legislative districts are Democrats (and female). That fate was sealed last year when Democrat Lisa Wellman defeated Republican Steve Litzow for the 41st LD state senate seat.

Likewise, in the 2016 election, every single precinct in the 41st, 45th, and 48th LDs preferred Hillary Clinton & Tim Kaine over Donald Trump & Michael Pence. (Source: database downloaded from: King County Elections) Opposition to Trump is what probably sank Litzow, who even sent out campaign literature stating his opposition to Trump.

Finally, in the recent primary election in the 45th LD, Democrat Manka Dhingra beat Republican Jimyoung Englund by double digits. (source)  Check out this to see who’s funding Englund.

The real estate tax increase was a result of the need to fund education, to satisfy the Supreme Court’s McCleary decision. Even Republicans agreed that the state needed to raise revenue. Rather than taxing the rich, as the Democrats wanted to do with their proposed capital gains tax and their plan to eliminate tax exemptions, Republicans insisted on funding McCleary almost entirely by raising existing regressive taxes (“no new taxes”). Another reason for the budget deal was to make sure that King County would subsidize the (mostly Republican) districts in the eastern part of the state.

All six Democratic legislators in the 41st and 48th legislative districts voted against the budget deal. But Democrats have only a two seat majority in the state house, so the bill passed, hours before the deadline that would have shut down the government.

This is the background that explains what’s going on with the opposition to the homeless shelter and safe injection sites.

The Eastgate shelter site is beside a transit center, a public health facility, and Bellevue College but is otherwise in a non-residential area. The closest homes are 850 away. But many citizens say they’re worried that the shelter — which would be “low-barrier” — would bring drugs and crime to the neighborhood and would lower real estate values.

Likewise, there is debate about whether safe injection sites should be located in King County, as has been proposed by the King County Council. The Council agreed that such sites would be located only in cities that welcomed them. City councils in Bellevue, Auburn, and Federal Way have voted to oppose such sites.

On social networks such as nextdoor.com, at town council meetings, in letters-to-the-editor, and at community meetings, some people are using their strong opposition to the shelter and the safe injection sites as wedges to attack politicians. There is a petition, I-27, to oppose heroin injection sites.

The petition and the opposition to the shelter are being driven by partisan Republican zeal to find wedge issues to win elections. Republicans are scared and need issues to win back votes.

The Seattle Times article Initiative proposed to ban heroin safe-injection sites in King County explains the origin of the safe injection petition:

The initiative campaign has been partly funded by major donors to Republican campaigns including Clyde Holland, Ken Fisher, Bruce McCaw and Skip Rowley. Signature-gathering began in Redmond and was focused on the Eastside suburbs, Sinderman said, though it was unlikely a site would be proposed there. And a spokesman for the I-27 campaign, Keith Schipper, is a former communications director for the Republican State Party…. Chris Vance, a former state Republican Party chairman, said he believes those leading the I-27 campaign sincerely believe safe-injection is bad policy. But they also see it as a way to make political gains. It is “absolutely the type of thing that’s been a wedge issue that allows suburban Republicans to differentiate themselves from Seattle Democrats,” said Vance, a former Metropolitan council member.

When I posted that quote on nextdoor, someone responded by telling a sad story about her niece dying in the hospital from liver failure due to drug use. I responded:

So sorry to hear about your niece. That’s why society needs to set up various kinds of treatment options. Surely you don’t think the supporters of safe injection sites like opiate use? Injection sites are one of many options for treatment, and only for the most addicted people. Besides, as the article points out, and as others have said, Bellevue and other Eastside communities are very unlikely locations for such a site. The City Council voted unanimously against it. Mostly, the issue is a wedge issue and a distraction from more pressing issues. For example, you point out “There are no beds. Medicare does not have coverage.” Why do you think that is? It’s because of our regressive, unfair tax system and corrupt political system. People are misled by propaganda. The issues of safe injection sites and the homeless shelters are distractions from more important issues.

Jared Nieuwenhuis, candidate for Bellevue City Council, used the issues of the shelter and safe injection site in his (nasty and dishonest) campaign literature. Here’s an image of the flier I got in the mail:

Campaign flier for Jared Nieuwebhuis attacking Karol Brown

In theory the city council elections are non-partisan. In practice, they are anything but. Look at the highly partisan campaign literature distributed by Jared. What does “Loyal to Seattle Special Interest Groups” mean? It falsely claims that Karol Brown will bring heroin injection sites; she opposes them. I can’t speak for whether Ms. Brown supports an income tax, but she should, and so should you, because our regressive tax system is very unfair to the middle class. Indeed, real estate taxes in Bellevue are going up about $800 next year because the Republicans refused to support a capital gains tax and refused to eliminate tax breaks for corporations and rich people.

Many experts and informed politicians think there is a role for safe injection sites.

“An article published this week in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine addresses the massive scope of opioid addiction in the United States, and discusses numerous benefits of giving drug users a supervised place to inject–something other countries have put into practice all over the world.” See “Opioid Activists Are Going Rogue To Prove That Safe Injection Sites Save Lives” (Opioid Activists Are Going Rogue To Prove That Safe Injection Sites Save Lives)

Safe injection sites are a radical new approach to battling addiction


Yet I myself do not think Bellevue is the right place for a safe injection site. Besides, the issue is settled in Bellevue, since the city council has voted to oppose the site. Nor do I have strong opinions about the location of the homeless shelter.

I just think the massive opposition to safe injection sites, and to the homeless shelter, is blown way out of proportion. Both are being used as wedge issues. If people are so concerned about drug abuse, please support funding for other solutions to these problems.

How can we address the opiate crisis, homelessness, pollution, traffic, and our grossly unfair, regressive tax system that burdens the middle class and causes increasing concentration of wealth? Those are the real issues we face.

Review of Martin Nowak's Super Cooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed

How can cooperation emerge in a world of selfish individuals ruled by a Darwinian competition for survival?

This is the question that Martin Nowak, Professor of Mathematics and Biology at Harvard University, discusses in Super Cooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed.

Nowak and his collaborators have published a series of articles in major scientific journals that give partial answers to this question. The book provides a gentle overview of the technical results, with frequent comments about the implications for politics and economics. For example, Nowak repeatedly mentions climate change as an example of something requiring cooperation among humans.

The hope is that if we understand, mathematically, how cooperation emerges, we can better design policies and structures to promote cooperation and deter selfishness.

I propose that “natural cooperation” be included as a fundamental principle to bolster those laid down by Darwin. Cooperation can draw living matter upwards to higher levels of organization… Cooperation makes evolution constructive and open-ended.

Super Cooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed

The book has a few simple mathematical formulas, but the educated layman should be able to understand the gist of the arguments, thanks to generous use of example, analogy and simplification. Indeed, the book’s readability benefits from the aid of Roger Highfield, an author of popular science books, who helped Nowak with the writing.

Darwinian evolution is based on competition for survival, for resources, and for mates. Winners reproduce, losers leave few offspring. Due to mutations, individuals vary in their fitness. Over many generations, fitter (configurations of) genes proliferate, while weaker ones disappear.

In fact, fitness is defined in terms of ability to reproduce, so the fact that fitter individuals reproduce is something of a tautology.

Similarly to evolution, in an economy, people often act selfishly, trying to get paid as much as possible for what they sell, whether goods or their services, and trying to pay as little as possible for what they buy.

It would appear that cooperation is difficult to explain in a pure, evolution-based model or in a selfish profit-based economy. You’d expect that selfishness would always win out. But it’s clear that cooperation is common, both among non-human animals and among humans.

The basic reason is that, in the long run being nice pays off, for you or for your children, kin, or neighbors.

In the context of this book, cooperation basically means: an individual is willing to sacrifice some short-term benefit in exchange for a longer-term reward, either for itself or for related individuals (e.g., children or kin or members of the same group). In other words, cooperation is a form of reciprocity, or reciprocal altruism. This sense of cooperation isn’t as pristine or as self-sacrificing as some religious traditions’ ideals of pure selfless love. But even Christianity relies on a promise of reward and punishment in the afterlife to motivate moral behavior.

Albert Einstein once said, “If people are good only because they fear punishment, and hope for reward, then we are a sorry lot indeed.”

Unfortunately, from the point of view of biology, all we seem to have is punishment and reward, where reward means reproductive fitness: produce descendants who survive and who likewise reproduce. (It is not sufficient to have children: if your kids are too weak to survive, or if they don’t reproduce, your reproductive fitness isn’t really high.)

Yet the bearer of fitness (the entity getting the reward or punishment and that gets to reproduce) isn’t necessarily the individual of a species. Richard Dawkins famously suggests that the unit of competition and survival may be the gene: animals exist to promote the interests of their genes, not the other way around. Moreover, genes, as well as gene networks, span individuals and species.

There are also theories which say the unit of the reward is the group: related kin, or cooperating subgroups, or (at a higher level) cooperating species who live in symbiosis with one another.

Indeed, group-based reciprocity seems to be the essence of cooperation.

We are all in it together.

We are interdependent.

Nowak thinks cooperation, and not just competition, is a fundamental force in evolution.

I have argued that evolution “needs” cooperation if she is to construct new levels of organization, driving genes to collaborate in chromosomes, chromosomes to collaborate in genomes, genomes to collaborate in cells, cells to collaborate in more complex cells, complex cells to collaborate in bodies, and bodies to collaborate in societies.

A set of genes working together is an example of cooperation. And in the primordial soup, sets of cooperating chemical reactions led to the origins of life.

Within biology, there have been attempts to explain cooperation in terms of kin selection (in which an individual is willing to sacrifice itself to aid close relatives who share many genes with it). The social insects are prime examples of cooperators; the worker ants who build and defend the nest are closely related to the queen.

A related notion is group selection (aka multi-level selection), according to which groups which are more fit (e.g., due to being better cooperators) out-compete groups which are less fit.

The idea of group selection seems intuitively correct, and Darwin was aware of the role of cooperation in evolution and of the apparent presence of group selection, both in biology and in culture (where ideas or what are now called “memes” reproduce).

But there are heated disagreements among professional biologists about whether the phenomenon of group selection really occurs and about the extent to which it occurs. Richard Dawkins has famously ridiculed both the idea and the biologists who support it. Nowak seems to be among the latter group.

Examples of cooperation among humans include: lending a cup of sugar to a neighbor, taking the bus instead of driving the car, paying taxes instead of cheating, contributing to the donation plate, bringing in your neighbors’ and garbage bins from the curb, as well as more dramatic examples such as risking your life to safe someone who has fallen onto train tracks. Most parents would instinctively risk their lives to save the lives of their (small) children.

In the mathematical and computer models of cooperation, various individuals interact with other individuals, either in a well-mixed pool; in a network of connections such as on social networks; in various sets of interests groups; or on a grid. Whenever you interact with another individual, each of you decides whether to cooperate or whether you will defect (be selfish). You are rewarded or punished accordingly.

Mathematically, cooperation is formalized in the form of such a two person game. The standard game of this sort is is called The Prisoner’s Dilemma.  It models the situation where two prisoners who have been arrested by the police and are being interrogated separately. Each prisoner gets to choose, independently, whether to cooperate (keep his mouth shut and deny the crime) or defect (accuse his partner of the crime). If they both cooperate they each get only one year in prison on a lesser charge, because the police have insufficient evidence. If they both defect, they each get two years in prison. If one person cooperates with his partner and the other person defects, then the first person (the cooperator) gets three years in prison and the second person (the defector) gets off free.

From the point of view of each prisoner, it seems the smartest thing to do is defect.

Suppose the other person cooperates and stays mum. Then you should defect, because you get off free.

On the other hand, suppose the other person defects and accuses you of the crime, then you better defect too. For if you cooperate with your partner, you get three years in prison, whereas if you defect you get just two years in prison.

What could prevent defection is loyalty, or the knowledge that in the future, after you’re both out of prison, the other person could punish you. Likewise, in a future similar situation, where cooperation might help he will remember your betrayal.

The tragedy of the commons is a similar scenario.

In the more general game, where rewards and punishments can take the form of money or some other outcome, there are likewise four possible outcomes: Cooperate-Cooperate, Cooperate-Defect, Defect-Cooperate, and Defect-Defect. Each outcome has a (possibly different) payoff for each of you. If you both cooperate, you both get the same reward R for cooperating. If one person cooperates but the other person defects, the first person is punished (S for Sucker) bad but the other person wins a big reward (T for Temptation) If you both defect, you’re both punished slightly (P). Depending on the relative values of P,R, S, and T, and on the structure of interactions — specifically, whether you can learn about the reputation of the person you’re interacting with — cooperation may or may not emerge.The standard Prisoner’s Dilemma game has

T > R > P > S.

Yet cooperation can emerge. This result is non-intuitive, because given the inequalities above, the values P, R, S, and T guarantee that in the short-term the smartest thing to do is to defect. Here’s why. Your opponent is either going to cooperate or defect (and you won’t know which he does til after you make your move).

Assume he cooperates. Then you can win big by defecting. Here’s why. If you cooperate, you get only R. But if you defect, you get T and T>R. So, it seems you should defect.

Likewise assume he defects. Then you better defect too, because if you cooperate, then you’ll get only S, but if you defect you’ll get P, and P>S.

So in either case, the best thing to do, in the short run, is to defect.

But in a community of people playing the game repeatedly, there are benefits from cooperation. A group of cooperating individuals will have a higher fitness (reward) than a group of turncoat defectors, because R>P.

If the last time I interacted with you, you cooperated, and if I remember that, I can try cooperating again, in the hopes that you will reciprocate.

So in the presence of repeated interactions, and memory, cooperation can emerge.

Cooperators are rewarded with help from other cooperators. Defectors are punished by future defection. If cooperators gain a benefit as a group that is unavailable to defectors, then cooperation can flourish. But cooperation is always susceptible to exploitation by defectors: a population of trusting cooperators can be taken advantage of by a few defectors.  Such invasions by defectors are visible in computer simulations.

Cancerous cells can be modeled as defectors.  So can tax dodgers and alleged welfare moms who drive Mercedes.

Using the formalization of Prisoner’s Dilemma, Nowak was able to prove mathematical theorems, and run computer simulations, that show under what conditions cooperation can flourish.

He showed that cooperation emerges if you meet the other person often enough in the future and can remember the previous interactions, so you can punish or reward him. It also helps if people have a reputation that is is public knowledge or that is shared between individuals (indirect reciprocity). Furthermore, it helps if people are organized into small groups; this allows cooperators to shield themselves from being taken of advantage of by nasty defectors; large groups are difficult to police. Finally, it helps if it’s possible to move between groups, to escape defectors.

Even if we can explain cooperation biologically, in terms of kin selection, or group selection, there is still a problem: how inclusive is the in-group?  Does it include people of a different race or nationality? How about individuals of a different species?

As indicated above, the biologically inspired notion of cooperation is somewhat unsatisfying, because it still relies on a form of reciprocity, albeit at the group level. If someone chooses not to identify with the group, then why should they cooperate?

Indeed, conservatives are the consummate defectors: individualists who detest and ridicule cooperation and community endeavors, at least by governments. Conservatives detest the United Nations. They detest the International Court of Law.  Conservatives avoid paying taxes,  but typically like spending money on wars, both domestic (e.g., the wasteful and disastrous war on drugs) and foreign.  Conservatives oppose laws and regulatory agencies that deter their antisocial behavior. They under-fund the IRS, encouraging tax cheats. And they under-fund Congressional staff, so that lawmakers are dependent on lobbyists and outside groups for information.

Like parasites, conservatives destroy the body politic, all in the name of “freedom.”

Conservatives and their ideology can be defeated only when enough people wake up to the lies and the half-truths behind their movement,  and when enough people realize that we’d be better off in the long run by cooperating on building a government that works for everyone, that makes sound environmental, health, and safety policies, and that makes sure tax cheats pay their fair share.